Showing posts with label Poland. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Poland. Show all posts

Bulla Aurea: The Golden Bull

The Golden Bull of Rimini was a document issued by Emperor Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empire on behalf of the Teutonic Knights. It ceded land to them which didn't belong to Frederick's Empire in the first place in return for the conquest of the same land and the conversion of its pagan population to Christianity.



Johann Sebastian Bach Plagiarized

Johann Sebastian Bach's Christmas Oratorio lay in musical archives for over 100 years. They were rediscovered around 1850. And music historians were amazed and dismayed: Bach had composed and used important parts of it before and plagiarized earlier compositions into the work. The originals, however, had very different texts, and these were not at all for Christmas or any liturgical use. 


The Elect Circle of Elected Monarchs on Europe’s Thrones

When we look at the monarchies in Europe, working and deposed ones, we get the false impression of perpetuity as ‘it always had been that way’. In fact, the vast majority of dynasties started out as elected monarchs. 



Nicolaus Copernicus and a Question of Nationality

If you read German and Polish history books, both claim Nicolaus Copernicus as their own. They make him part of their national identity. The question remains unresolved as there are points to be made for both views. But was nationality really an issue?